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UPSC expert, it is important to read this article because it discusses the ongoing process .....

UPSC expert, it is important to read this article because it discusses the ongoing process of replacing the existing criminal laws in India.

  • The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs is close to finalizing its report on three Bills to replace existing criminal laws.

  • The adoption of the draft report has been postponed due to demands from Opposition members for more time to study it.

  • The report has at least three dissenting notes, mainly regarding the text of the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita and the Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita.

  • There is unanimity on the Bharatiya Sakshya Bill.

  • The committee has only held 12 sittings since August 24, raising questions about the adequacy of scrutiny.

  • The purpose of introducing these new criminal codes was to overhaul colonial-oriented laws.

  • Wide consultations among stakeholders across the country should have been conducted for a meaningful study of the Bills.

  • The panel should hold sittings across the country and listen to lawyers, activists, and members of the subordinate judiciary for their input.

  • The demand for more time to examine the report has emerged due to the late availability of the Hindi version and limited time to study the draft report.

  • The panel's next meeting is scheduled for November 6.

  • The deferment should be seen as an opportunity to extend the time given to the committee by a few more months.

  • The government wants to introduce and pass the Bills during the winter session, but there is no need for such haste.

  • Some sections of the new laws are similar to the old Codes, but there are areas that may require deeper scrutiny.

  • Areas of concern include the potential misuse of new definitions, the introduction of new offences like 'hate speech', and the need for procedural reform in the criminal justice system.

How Israel controls the economy of the Palestinian territories, particularly Gaza, by controlling exits and entry points.

  • Israel controls employment, trade, water, and electricity in the Palestinian territories, particularly Gaza and the West Bank.

  • Only three crossings, two controlled by Israel and one by Egypt, are available for movement in and out of Gaza.

  • In 2022, 424,000 people were allowed to exit Gaza to Israel or through Israel to the West Bank, which is one in five people.

  • The number of exit permits issued in 2022 is the highest in about two decades, but it is still significantly lower than the 6 million exits recorded in 2000.

  • The exit of people permitted to Israel or through it decreased in the 2000s and remained low in the 2010s due to escalating hostility.

  • In 2006, after Hamas won the Palestinian parliamentary elections and started controlling Gaza, Israel stopped most workers from entering the country, leading to a decline in Gaza's labor force participation rate.

Gaza's labor force participation rate reached 35% in 2021, among the lowest in the world, and half of those looking for jobs in Gaza are unemployed, which is a direct consequence of the decline in exit permits.

  • In 2022, only two out of every three applications submitted for referral patients to exit Gaza were approved by the time of appointment.

  • Gaza has only 13 hospital beds per 10,000 population, which is among the lowest in the world.

  • In 2021, half the exports from Palestinian territories went to Israel and over 80% of its imports came from Israel.

  • In 2022, over 74,000 truckloads of goods were allowed into Gaza by Israel, the lowest since 2014.

  • Goods to Gaza from Israel reduced to the lowest levels immediately after the Israeli blockade in 2007.

  • Gaza's import dependency on Israel for petrol, diesel, and cooking gas was high before 2018, but Egypt has taken its spot since then.

  • In 2009, only 24 truckloads of outgoing goods from Gaza went into Israel, compared to 5,834 in 2022.

  • The latest conflict could affect the number of truckloads allowed out of Gaza.

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