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Union and State Territories UPSC NOTE

  • Part 1 of the Indian Constitution declares India to be a Union of States

  • The total number of states mentioned in Part 1 of the Indian Constitution is 28 and the number of Union Territories is 7.

  • Article 1 – Declares the Union of the States and Union Territories of India

  • Article 1 (1) – By this, our country is addressed as Bharat or India in the Constitution (the name of our country is India in the United Nations also)

  • Article 2 – This section empowers the Indian Parliament to constitute a new state

  • Article 3 – This section provides the following rights to the Parliament –

  • That Parliament can create one state by merging two or more states. It can increase or decrease the boundary of any state.

  • It can change the name of any state. Earlier the name of NEFA was changed by the Arunachal Pradesh Parliament only.

  • It is noteworthy that the respective State Legislature has the right to change the name of the cities. Madras, Chennai, Kolkata, Kolkata, Mumbai, the names of these cities have been given by the Legislature of the respective states.

  • After independence, four categories of states were decided in India by including British provinces and native princely states.

  • Category A: These A category states were formed by merging 216 princely states with the provinces of British India – Assam, Bihar, Mumbai, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Orissa, Punjab, United Province, West Bengal and Andhra category states were completed. was granted autonomy

  • Category B – 275 princely states have been given category B states by forming them into administrative units and not from states Hyderabad, Jammu Kashmir, Central India, Mysore, PEPSU, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Travancore – Cochin. Their number was '8' in this category. There were states which had to become independent after remaining under the union for some days.

  • Category C – 61 princely states were integrated and placed in the category of C state. These states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Bhopal, Durg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kutch, Manipur, Tripura, and Vindhya Pradesh. Their number was 10 and this union were administered territories

  • Category D – Andaman and Nicobar Islands were placed in ‘D’ category, it is also a union territory.

  • Andhra Pradesh was first formed on the basis of India on 1 October 1953 AD.

  • In 1953 AD, a State Reorganization Commission was formed under the chairmanship of Fazal Ali.

  • Apart from the Chairman, the State Reorganization Commission also had two members, Hridaynath Kunzru and KM Panikkar.

  • The Fazal Ali Commission constituted on 22 December 1953 submitted its report to the Central Government on 30 September 1955 in which it made recommendations regarding the reorganization of the states.

  • It is unfair to reorganize states on the basis of language and culture.

  • Reorganization of the states should be done keeping in mind the national security, financial and administrative needs and the success of the five year plans.

  • The states divided into A, B, C categories should be abolished and in their place 16 states and 3 union territories should be created.

  • On 31 August 1956, Parliament accepted the recommendations of the Commission and passed the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act.

  • The number of states was now 14 and there were 5 union territories.

  • Himachal Pradesh got statehood in 1970 AD

  • A new state Kerala was formed by the States Reorganization Act 1956.

  • In 1960 AD, Mumbai province was divided and two new states Gujarat and Maharashtra were formed.

  • Nagaland was formed as a state in 1962 AD

  • In 1966, Punjab was reorganized into Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh (Union Territory).

  • Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya were given state status in 1972 AD.

  • Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh got full state status in 1986 AD

  • Goa attained full statehood in 1987 AD

  • In the year 2000, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar were reorganized and Uttaranchal, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were formed respectively.

  • unification of princely states

  • Before independence, the Indian territory was divided into two categories, British India and native states. The total number of these native states was 600, out of which some 552 princely states merged into the Union of India.

  • There was a lot of difficulty in merging the three princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh and Jammu Kashmir into India.

  • The princely state of Junagadh was merged with India through referendum. Its Nawab was in favor of merging with Pakistan.

  • The princely state of Hyderabad was annexed to India by military action.

  • Jammu and Kashmir merged with Pakistan after tribal invasion and the king signed the Instrument of Accession.

  • The biggest contribution of the then Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was in all these mergers.

  • sk rate committee

  • The President of the Constituent Assembly, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, constituted it on 27 November 1947 under the chairmanship of SK Dar (retired judge of Allahabad High Court) to evaluate the formation of states on linguistic basis.

  • In its report submitted in December 1948, the committee recommended reorganizing the states on administrative basis.

Section 370 update

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution was an article that gave autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir. The articles are drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, transitional and special provisions. The Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, after its establishment, was empowered to recommend articles of the Indian Constitution that should be implemented in the state or abrogate Article 370 altogether.After the Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly framed the state constitution and dissolved itself without recommending the abrogation of Article 370, the article was considered a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution.

The Modi government introduced a historic resolution in the Rajya Sabha on August 5, 2019, proposing to remove Article 370 of the Constitution from the state of Jammu and Kashmir and bifurcation of the state into two union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir will have its own legislature while Ladakh will be a Union Territory without a legislature.

According to the format in the Indian Constitution, India is called a union of states. At present, there are 29 states and 7 union territories in India. The state is ruled by the Chief Minister elected by the people of that state. The state is governed by the center in that state.Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi and Puducherry are governed by Lieutenant Governors, while the other four union territories are governed by Administrators.

What is a Union Territory?

In India, Union Territory means those territories which, due to some special circumstances, are run directly by the Central Government instead of being merged with other states.

What is the reason for creating a union territory?

What is the reason for creating a union territory?

Low population and small size – Except Delhi, all other union territories have very less population.

Different culture – Some states of India have been ruled by foreign rulers, hence there are still traces of the culture of these rulers on the culture there. The biggest examples of this can be taken as Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu (Portuguese) and Puducherry (French). Some parts of Puducherry are so similar to French culture.

Administrative importance – Chandigarh was earlier a part of Punjab. Later, after the Shah Commission report, Punjab was divided and Haryana state came into existence on 1 November 1966, but due to the administrative importance of Chandigarh, no state was ready to leave it, due to which Chandigarh was made the joint capital of both. the states. Was

Location of strategic importance – Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands are located on the far west and east ends of our country, hence they are far away from the mainland, hence it is easy to control them directly through the central government as they are strategically important for India. are very important and in case of any emergency the Government of India can directly take action there

Far away from other states – Apart from the union territories like Delhi, Chandigarh and Puducherry, all the union territories are located very far from other states; For this reason, they cannot have very close economic and social relations with other states.

Other important facts

  • Since Delhi has its own High Court, Chief Minister and Council of Ministers, it was given the status of semi-state in 1991.

  • Daman and Diu were ruled by the Portuguese but it was forcefully captured by the Indian Army in 1961 and along with Goa it was also made a union territory but Goa was given the status of a full state in 1987.

  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli were ruled by the Marathas till 1779 and then by the Portuguese Empire till 1954. This state was included in India on 11 August 1961.

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