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Today's Current affairs for UPSC 10 June 2024 The Hindu and Indian Express



AP vs Telangana: Unresolved Issues Between the States That Went to Court


General Studies Paper: GS II - Polity and Governance

UPSC Optional Subject: Public Administration

Essay Topic: Federalism and Inter-State Relations

Key Points

  1. Background and Context

  • Division of Andhra Pradesh: The bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh in 2014 led to the creation of Telangana. This division necessitated the adjudication of various disputes, especially related to the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 (APRA).

  1. Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 (APRA)

  • Ninth and Tenth Schedules: AP filed a petition in December 2022 in the Supreme Court (SC) for the division of assets under the Ninth and Tenth Schedules of APRA. The assets valued at ₹1,42,601 crores are largely located in Hyderabad, benefiting Telangana.

  • Supreme Court Petition: AP claims Telangana’s inaction on asset division violates constitutional rights. AP seeks the SC's directive for asset division under a neutral arbitrator. The case is pending final hearing in March 2024.

  1. Specific Issues and Disputes

  • AP State Council of Higher Education (APSCHE):

  • SC decided in 2016 that assets of APSCHE should be divided based on population ratio.

  • AP Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Limited (APDDCF):

  • Dispute over the transfer of assets from AP to Telangana. Telangana High Court ordered division based on population ratio.

  • AP Mineral Development Corporation (APMDC):

  • Issue of asset division based on proposals and population ratios; disputes pending in the Supreme Court.

  1. Legal and Administrative Actions

  • Court Orders and Legal Proceedings:

  • Various disputes have been taken to High Courts and the Supreme Court for resolution.

  • Decisions often highlight the necessity of reasonable and equitable asset distribution.

  1. Political and Economic Implications

  • Impact on Governance and Development:

  • Delays and disputes over asset division impact the economic development and governance efficiency of both states.

Background

The bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh and the formation of Telangana in 2014 created several unresolved issues, primarily related to the division of assets and liabilities as outlined in the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014. Key disputes involve the Ninth and Tenth Schedules of the Act, which list various assets and institutions. Protracted legal battles have ensued, with Andhra Pradesh seeking judicial intervention to ensure fair distribution. This has significant implications for governance, development, and inter-state relations, highlighting the complexities of federalism in India.




Only 13.6 Per Cent - Women Were Central to Poll Promises in 2024, But Fewer Were Elected


Topic: Women's Representation in Politics

General Studies Paper: GS II - Polity and Governance

UPSC Optional Subject: Sociology

Essay Topic: Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment

Key Points

  1. Election Context and Results

  • 2024 Lok Sabha Elections: Marked a significant point in India's political history with a total of 74 women elected out of 469 MPs, constituting 13.6% of the parliament. This is lower than the 2019 figure of 14.4%.

  • Women's Reservation Bill: First parliamentary election after the Bill, which reserves one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies for women, was passed.

  1. Analysis and Critique

  • Representation Issue: Despite the new law, women's representation did not show significant improvement. The percentage of women elected is still below expectations.

  • Political Parties' Role: While political parties showed support for the Women's Reservation Bill, the actual number of female candidates was low. Only 9.6% of candidates were women, and 11% of candidates on a party ticket were women.

  1. Comparative International Perspective

  • Global Statistics: According to Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) data, globally women hold 26.9% of parliamentary seats. In 2023, in 52 countries with parliamentary elections, the average percentage of women elected was 27.6%.

  • Mexico's Example: Mexico achieved parity in its congress with women occupying several key political offices.

  1. Challenges and Solutions

  • Barriers and Misogyny: Women faced challenges such as misogynistic jibes, lack of party support, and limited to non-leadership roles.

  • Necessary Reforms: Emphasis on creating an enabling environment for women's political participation and implementing gender-sensitive policies.

  • Grassroots Movements: The need for continued grassroots efforts to push for not only increased representation but also gender parity in political offices.

  1. India's Position and Future Steps

  • India's Leadership: Despite leading in legislative measures for women's political participation, actual representation remains low.

  • Long-term Commitment: Essential to maintain focus on gender-sensitive measures and policies to ensure true gender parity in political representation.

Background Information

The 2024 Lok Sabha elections highlighted the ongoing challenges in achieving gender parity in Indian politics despite legislative measures like the Women's Reservation Bill. The underrepresentation of women continues to reflect broader global trends, though some countries like Mexico have made significant strides. Addressing these challenges requires a combination of political will, effective implementation of policies, and continued advocacy from grassroots movements to ensure women's full and equal participation in politics.



Highway to 'Climate Hell'

Topic: Climate Change and Global Warming

General Studies Paper: GS III - Environment and Ecology

UPSC Optional Subject: Geography

Essay Topic: Climate Change and Its Impact

Key Points

  1. Current Climate Scenario

  • Temperature Records: Each month over the last year has seen new temperature records. May 2024 marked the first instance of the average global temperature exceeding the pre-industrial level by 1.5 degrees Celsius.

  • World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Report: WMO reported an 80% chance that at least one year between 2024 and 2028 will see average temperatures 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

  1. 1.5 Degrees Celsius Threshold

  • Significance: Established during the 2015 Paris Agreement, this threshold is crucial to limit global warming and its catastrophic impacts.

  • Potential Impacts: Crossing this threshold could lead to irreversible damage to ecosystems, increased extreme weather events, and severe impacts on food and water security.

  1. Temperature Predictions and Anomalies

  • Current Predictions: The average global temperature for June 2023 to May 2024 is projected to be 1.63 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

  • Factors: The El Niño phenomenon, contributing to record-breaking surface temperatures, and transition phases between El Niño and La Niña, impact global temperatures.

  1. Consequences of Breaching the Threshold

  • Adverse Effects: Rising temperatures cause more severe weather events, such as heatwaves, affecting human health, agriculture, and infrastructure.

  • Regional Impacts: Different regions may experience varied impacts, such as severe heatwaves in North and Central India.

  1. Scientific and Global Responses

  • Climate Science Research: Institutions like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) emphasize that while temporary breaches are critical, long-term breaches must be avoided.

  • Global Measures: International efforts, such as those by the European Space Agency (ESA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), monitor and attempt to mitigate climate impacts.

Background

Climate change remains a pressing global issue, with recent data indicating an imminent breach of the critical 1.5 degrees Celsius threshold above pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement aimed to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius, ideally to 1.5 degrees Celsius, to prevent the worst effects of climate change. However, with rising global temperatures and increasing frequency of extreme weather events, the need for urgent and effective climate action is more evident than ever. International bodies and scientific communities continue to stress the importance of maintaining temperature rise within safe limits to avoid catastrophic environmental and socio-economic impacts.





How Horses Galloped Into Human History: What a New Study Says


General Studies Paper: GS I - Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

UPSC Optional Subject: History

Essay Topic: The Impact of Animal Domestication on Human Civilization

Key Points

  1. Introduction to Horse Domestication

  • Significance: The domestication of horses was a crucial development in human history, enabling rapid long-distance travel and significantly impacting warfare.

  1. Research Findings

  • Genomic Analysis: An extensive analysis of genome data from 475 ancient horses and 77 modern horses revealed two phases of domestication.

  • Timeline: The successful domestication and widespread use of horses occurred around 2200 BC in Eurasia, much later than previously thought.

  1. Two Phases of Domestication

  • First Domestication:

  • Time and Place: Approximately 5,500 years ago in Central Asia.

  • Purpose: Primarily for obtaining meat and milk, not for movement.

  • Outcome: Did not spread; resulted in the feral Przewalski’s horses of Mongolia.

  • Second Domestication:

  • Time and Place: Around 4,700 years ago in the western Russian steppes.

  • Purpose and Spread: Initially for a period of limited use, leading to widespread horse-based mobility about 4,200 years ago.

  • Current Horses: Modern domestic horses descend from this event.

  1. Genomic Insights

  • Breeding Practices: Reduced generation time by half, from 80 to 40 years, by avoiding close inbreeding and selecting for desirable traits.

  • Research Source: Study led by Pablo Librado, published in the journal Nature.

  1. Transformative Impact

  • Mobility and Communication: Enabled rapid movement, boosting communication, trade networks, and cultural exchanges across Europe and Asia.

  • Warfare: Chariots and cavalry revolutionized warfare, contributing to the rise and fall of empires.

  • Historical Examples: Genghis Khan’s empire from the Sea of Japan to the doors of Europe was powered by horse cavalry.

  • Modern Influence: Horses remain essential in various sectors, including agriculture and urban transport.

Background

The study of horse domestication uncovers critical insights into how humans have utilized animals to shape their civilizations. The domestication of horses facilitated significant advancements in transportation, trade, and warfare, deeply influencing historical events and societal development. This transformative process underscores the broader impact of animal domestication on human history, highlighting the role of horses in shaping the world we know today.


UPSC Prelims Previous Year Questions on the Topic





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