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the recent elections in Mizoram and the victory of the Zoram People's Movement (ZPM). It..........

The recent elections in Mizoram and the victory of the Zoram People's Movement (ZPM). It highlights the factors that led to the ZPM's success and the challenges they will face in governing the state. Reading this article will provide insights into the dynamics of regional politics, coalition-building, and the importance of governance in electoral outcomes.


  • The Zoram People's Movement (ZPM) won a clear majority in the Mizoram elections with 37.9% of the vote share.


The incumbent Mizo National Front (MNF) received 35.1% of the vote share.

  • The Congress party received 20.8% of the vote share and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) received 5.1%.

  • The ZPM's victory ended a 36-year-old duopoly between the MNF and the Congress in Mizoram.

  • The ZPM defeated the MNF by promoting ethnic nationalism and solidarity with tribal groups in Manipur and Myanmar.

  • The Congress tried to attract voters by highlighting the regional parties' potential alliance with the BJP.

  • The ZPM's focus on a corruption-free regime and governance for the youth resonated with voters.

  • The ZPM's victory suggests that a significant number of voters looked beyond ethnic nationalism and communitarian appeals.

  • The ZPM (Zoram People's Movement) successfully projected itself as a force for change in Mizoram.

  • The party received endorsements from popular members of Mizoram's civil society.

  • Former IPS officer Lalduhoma is the leader of the ZPM and the presumptive Chief Minister.

  • The ZPM won the election and will form the government on its own.

  • The party may receive overtures from the BJP to form a coalition government.

  • The ZPM will need to balance its goals of clean and independent governance with building a relationship with the Union government.

  • Mizoram is highly dependent on Union transfers for its finances, with a ratio of 85.7%.

  • The ZPM should focus on diversifying the economy beyond agriculture, such as eco-friendly tourism and value-added services, to bring about decisive change in the state.

The ongoing border dispute between Venezuela and Guyana over the Essequibo region. It highlights the historical background, the recent referendum held by Venezuela, and the differing claims of both countries. It also mentions the involvement of the International Court of Justice and the pressure on President Maduro to hold free elections. Reading this article will provide insights into the geopolitical tensions in South America and the challenges faced by Venezuela.

  • Venezuela has held a referendum on whether it should exercise sovereignty over Essequibo, a disputed region that is now part of Guyana.


More than 95% of the voters supported Venezuela's claim over Essequibo.

  • President Nicolás Maduro held the referendum just months before the next presidential election, suggesting he might keep the border tensions alive.

  • Venezuela has always claimed sovereignty over Essequibo, which it says was stolen when the border was drawn by colonial powers over a century ago.

  • Tensions eased when Hugo Chávez was the President, but they started increasing again when an oil boom transformed Guyana's economy.

  • Guyana and Venezuela are in a border dispute over a 1899 border agreement.

  • Guyana approached the International Court of Justice in 2018 for a ruling on the agreement.

  • Venezuela argues that it was not part of the agreement and considers it null and void.

  • The International Court of Justice refused to ban a referendum requested by Guyana but asked Venezuela not to take any action based on the referendum.

  • Venezuelan President Maduro has dismissed the world court's jurisdiction over the dispute.

  • Maduro is under pressure to hold free elections and recently reached a deal with the opposition for next year's election.

  • Maduro retains control over state institutions but is unpopular due to economic issues and hyperinflation.

  • A border conflict would worsen the situation in Venezuela.

  • Maduro should resolve the territorial issues with Guyana through talks in the spirit of the Geneva Agreement.

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