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The ongoing conflict in Gaza and its implications for the wider region. It highlights the escalating tensions and the potential for further violence. As a UPSC aspirant, it is important to stay......

The ongoing conflict in Gaza and its implications for the wider region. It highlights the escalating tensions and the potential for further violence. As a UPSC aspirant, it is important to stay updated on current events and understand the dynamics of international relations.

  • The Gaza war has spread to Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, and Iran.

  • An Israeli drone strike in Beirut killed Saleh al-Arouri, the deputy head of Hamas leadership located abroad.

  • Two explosions in Kerman, Iran, killed 95 people at the mausoleum of General Qassem Soleimani.

  • The Islamic State has claimed responsibility, but many Iranians suspect Israeli involvement.

  • The United States announced the targeted killing of the head of an Iran-affiliated militia in Baghdad.

  • The Houthis have been attacking American targets and demanding urgent humanitarian assistance for Palestinians in Gaza.

  • Over 22,000 Palestinians have been killed and nearly two million displaced in the Gaza war.

  • Netanyahu could pursue escalation in the region.

  • Israeli troops have expanded their military operations to the West Bank, resulting in the deaths of nearly 300 Palestinians, detentions of several thousand, and destruction of homes.

  • Israeli cabinet Ministers have called for the cleansing of Gaza of Palestinians and the resettlement of the enclave with Jewish settlers.

  • Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu may pursue escalation despite the lack of significant achievements in the destruction of Hamas.

  • No prominent Hamas leader has been apprehended in Gaza, and Hamas continues to inflict damage on Israeli soldiers.

  • Thousands of women and children have been detained by Israeli security to reveal the location of Hamas leaders, but with no apparent success.

  • The killing of Saleh al-Arouri, a prominent presence in the Hamas leadership, may have been carried out to proclaim some success in the war on Hamas.

  • Peace seems distant in the current situation.

  • Targeted killings increase hostility and tensions without serving any useful purpose.

  • There is a worrying possibility that Netanyahu might want to seize the opportunity to eliminate Palestinian resistance, Hezbollah, and debilitate Iran.

  • No major player has exhibited a vision or strategy for the endgame and the "day after" the cessation of hostilities in the three-month war in Gaza.

  • Israel has shown no clarity about its war aims or the management of Gaza after the war.

  • The US has been unable to establish a clear policy and has only provided political and military support to Israel.

  • Saudi Arabia could potentially play a role in promoting peace in the region.

  • Arab states lack leadership and have not taken a strong approach to the Palestine issue or regional security.

  • Saudi Arabia has the responsibility to bring about peace and has the standing to insist on its views being respected.

  • Saudi Arabia needs to take proactive initiatives for Palestinian interests and regional peace.

  • West Asian rulers and their people need to unite to serve the region's interests or risk being swept away in regional conflict.

The "People's Manifesto for a Just, Equitable and Sustainable India" released by various people's movements and civil society organizations. It highlights the need for policy level shifts to address issues such as unemployment, ecological collapse, and erosion of democratic rights.

  • India is facing multiple crises including unemployment, social and cultural strife, ecological collapse, and erosion of democratic rights.

  • Recent events such as unemployed people gatecrashing Parliament, natural disasters in Joshimath and Sikkim, conflict in Manipur, and suppression of democratic voices indicate the growing malaise in India.

  • There are initiatives by governments, businesses, communities, and people's collectives to resist destruction and create alternative pathways to meet human needs and aspirations.

  • On December 18, 85 people's movements and civil society organizations released a 'People's Manifesto for a Just, Equitable and Sustainable India'.

  • These groups are part of the national platform called Vikalp Sangam (Alternatives Confluence) and are working on ecological food production, decentralized water harvesting and management, community-based energy production, dignified housing and settlements, meaningful education and health security, locally empowered decision-making, and resistance against destructive projects.

  • Vikalp Sangam has organized physical assemblies, published stories of positive change, and advocated for policy changes over the past decade.

  • The manifesto is aimed at the general election 2024 and various local to national institutions and processes.

  • It addresses the serious crisis of unemployment, especially among the youth.

  • It urges priority attention to small manufacturing, crafts, value added produce from agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and pastoralism.

  • It calls for the extension of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act to urban areas.

  • It suggests reserving all goods and services that can be produced through handmade and small manufacturing for these sectors.

  • The Vikalp Sangam process has compiled practical examples of these approaches on its website.

  • These examples include rural revival, reduced outmigration, and even reverse migration back to villages and small manufacturing or crafts.

  • Dignified, remunerative livelihoods based on agriculture or other land-based occupations are highlighted, along with new ones such as homestay-based tourism and youth enterprises combining traditional and modern knowledge and technologies.

  • The manifesto emphasizes the need to shift macro-economic policies and budgets away from large industry controlled by big corporations and government agencies.

  • It demands curbs on the black economy, reduction in the ratio of highest and lowest salaries, greater wealth and inheritance taxation of the rich, and basic income and pension for all workers.

  • The manifesto emphasizes the need for real devolution of financial and legal powers to village and urban assemblies.

  • It calls for the fuller implementation of panchayat laws and a comprehensive law on accountability of state agencies, including mandatory public audits.

  • The manifesto highlights the importance of reviving the independence of institutions such as the Election Commission and the media.

  • It seeks the repeal of misused laws like the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act and The National Security Act.

  • The manifesto expresses concern about inter-faith and inter-ethnic conflicts, hate speech, and vulnerabilities of minorities.

  • It calls for forums of dialogue and restoring co-existence to address these issues.

  • The manifesto advocates for priority in all public and private institutions to be given to the most marginalized sections of society, including women, Dalits, Adivasis, religious and sexual minorities, and persons with disabilities.

  • It proposes reserving 6% of GDP for education, based on mother tongue, activity-based, culturally and ecologically rooted learning.

  • The manifesto emphasizes the need for community health processes based on multiple systems and prioritizing preventive measures through adequate nutrition, safe water, and other determinants of a healthy life.

  • It suggests allocating 3% of GDP for these initiatives.

  • The manifesto specifically focuses on environmental issues.

  • The manifesto calls for a national land and water policy to protect ecological functions and extend the Forest Rights Act to other ecosystems.

  • It advocates for the complete conversion of India's farming to organic and biologically diverse methods by 2040.

  • The manifesto recommends drastic cuts in toxic products, plastics, and non-biodegradable materials.

  • It suggests decentralised water harvesting managed by communities, decentralised renewable energy, and phasing out fossil fuels and nuclear power by 2030.

  • The manifesto asks for the rollback of the weakening of environmental impact assessment and forest clearance processes.

  • It proposes the introduction of impact assessment of sectors like energy as a whole.

  • The manifesto recommends the establishment of a National Environment Commissioner with independent constitutional status.

  • It emphasizes the need for greater priority and allocation of resources to address the climate crisis and help communities adapt to its impacts.

  • The manifesto is a 21-point charter backed by documented examples available on Vikalp Sangam's website.

  • Previous attempts to include environmental recommendations in election manifestos have had mixed results, with some parties incorporating them and others not implementing them.

  • The manifesto urges the voices of India's large youth population to be enabled.

  • The Adivasi village of Mendha Lekha in Maharashtra believes that they are the government in their village.

  • Dalit women farmers in Telangana have asserted control over seeds, knowledge, water, and land for nutritional security.

  • Residents' associations in Bhuj town of Kachchh have implemented local decision-making in urban planning.

  • The Vikalp Sangam Manifesto promotes direct and accountable democracy, economic self-reliance, ecological responsibility, and socio-cultural equality.

  • Member-organizations of the Vikalp Sangam will continue to promote these ideas through advocacy and ground action.

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