More than 1652 languages are spoken in India, of which 63 are non-Indian languages.
A total of 22 Indian languages have been included in the Eighth Schedule given in Part 17 of the Indian Constitution.
In Part 17 Article 343 of the Indian Constitution, the language of the Union has been declared Hindi and the script Devanagari. Hindi is used by 46% people in India.
According to Article 343 (3), even after the initially prescribed period of 15 years, Parliament may allow the continued use of English for these specific purposes.
Article 344 provides for the constitution of an Official Language Commission for the purpose of giving advice to the President regarding the official language.
In 1955 AD, the first Official Language Commission was constituted by the President under the chairmanship of BG Kher.
The first Official Language Commission presented its recommendations in 1956 AD, which were examined by the Joint Parliamentary Committee in 1957 AD. This Commission recommended that after 1965 AD, the language of the Union will mainly be Hindi but English will also remain as the central official language.
Under Article 345, the Legislature of each State was given the power to adopt any one or more of the languages given in the Eighth Schedule as the official language of the State for official purposes.
The language of laws passed by Parliament and State Legislatures will be English.
The language of the Supreme Court and High Courts will be English unless Parliament provides otherwise.
Article 350 provides that any person can make a representation in any Indian language to any authority of the Union State for redressal of his grievance.
Languages included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution
Initially only 14 languages were included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution, but later through some amendments, 8 more languages were added to the Eighth Schedule, taking the total number to 22.
21st Constitution Amendment 1967 – Sindhi
71st Constitutional Amendment 1992 – Manipuri, Konkani, and Nepali
92nd Constitutional Amendment 2004 – Maithili, Santhali, Dogri and Bodo
Assamese, Telugu, Hindi, Sindhi, Malayalam, Maithili, Tamil, Gujarati, Kokani, Kashmiri, Nepali, Oriya, Bengali, Urdu, Kannada, Manipuri, Marathi, Santhali, Punjabi, Dogri, Sanskrit, Bodo.
According to Article 63, there will be a Vice President of India.
According to Article 64, the President has been recognized as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, this follows the American practice.
Article 361 describes the election process for the Vice President, according to which the Vice President is elected by an electoral college which includes all the members of both the houses of the Parliament, hence the nominated members also participate in the election of the Vice President.
Like the President, the Vice President is also elected by the single transferable vote under the indirect and proportional representation system because there is no provision for participation in the provincial legislatures.
According to Article 66 (1), only members of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha participate in the electoral college of the Vice President.
Qualifications for the post of Vice President
Under Article 66 (3), the qualifications for a person contesting the election of Vice President have been prescribed, which are as follows –
He should be a citizen of India,
He has completed 35 years of age,
He is eligible to become a member of Rajya Sabha,
He should not hold any office of profit under the Central Government or State Government or any local authority or any other public authority,
The present President or Vice President and the Governor of any State and the Minister of the Union or State are not considered to hold any office of profit, hence for this reason they are eligible for the candidature for the post of Vice President and along with this, the candidate for nomination for the election of Vice President. There must be at least 20 proposers and seconders.
Term of office and position of vacancies
According to Article 377, the Vice President shall hold office for a period of 5 years from the date of assumption of office, but the Vice President may resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the President.
(Article 68) The Vice President may be removed from office by a resolution made by the Rajya Sabha which is passed by a majority of all the then members of the Rajya Sabha and to which the Lok Sabha agrees, but the Vice President will have to be informed 14 days before proposing the resolution for removal.
Even after the expiry of his term of office, the Vice President will continue to hold office until his successor assumes office.
When the Vice President acts as the acting President, he can be removed by impeachment in the same manner in which the Constitution provides for the removal of the President.
The oath of office to the Vice President is administered by the President or someone appointed by him. The President takes the oath to have true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India and to perform his office and duties.
The salary and allowances of the President are given from the Consolidated Fund of India.
Functions and powers of the Vice President
The functions and powers of the Vice President are as follows
As Rajya Sabha Chairman
According to Article 64, the Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and shall not hold any other office of profit but while acting as the President, he shall not act as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
As the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, the Vice President presides over its sessions. It is his responsibility to maintain discipline in the Rajya Sabha.
2. as president
Article 65 Assigns the functions of the President to the Vice President Article 65 (1) In the event of a vacancy in the office of the President due to his death, resignation or removal from office or for any other reason, the Vice President shall act as President until that date.
Until the newly elected President assumes office, the Vice President can serve on the post of President for a maximum of 6 months because according to the Constitution, the President should be elected within six months.
According to Article 65 (3), when the Vice President acts as the President, he will exercise all the powers of the President and will also get the salary and allowances of the President.
Similarly, when the Vice President serves as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, he receives salary and other facilities as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and not as the Vice President.