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Making of the Indian Constitution UPSC NOTE

Demand for constitution

Mahatma Gandhi, during the non-cooperation movement in 1922 AD, demanded that the political destiny of India should be decided by the Indians themselves.

Due to the failure of the Law Commissions and Round Table Conferences, the Government of India Act 1935 was passed to fulfill the aspirations of the Indians.

Congress demanded in 1935 that the Constitution of India should be made without any outside interference.

In 1938 AD, Jawahar Lal Nehru and in 1939 AD, the Congress Working Committee clearly demanded the formation of Indians' own Constituent Assembly.

Cabinet Mission Plan (Cabinet Mission Plan 1946)

On the demand of Indians, after the nationalists rejected the Crisp Mission sent by the British Government in 1942 AD, the British Government presented a Cabinet Mission Plan in 1946 AD, in which the arrangements were made as follows.

India will be a federation consisting of British India and the princely states.

There will be an Executive and a Legislature of the Union which will be formed by the representatives of the provinces and states. With the help of all the days, an interim government will be formed soon in which all the departments will be in the hands of the Indians.

Interim government

According to the provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan that came to India in March 1946, the interim government was announced on 24 August 1946. On 2 September 1946, the interim government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.

In fact, the Viceroy's Executive Council was the interim government. The Viceroy was its President and Jawaharlal Nehru was its Vice President.

Apart from Nehru, the total number of members in this government was 11. Initially Muslim League did not join this government but on the occasion of reorganization on 26 October 1946, 5 of its members joined the government.

Cabinet of 1946

Jawaharlal Nehru was appointed Vice-President of the Executive Council for Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth.

Vallabhbhai Patel to Ministry of Home Information and Broadcasting

Baldev Singh Defense Ministry

John Mathai Ministry of Industry

C Rajagopalachari Ministry of Education

Dr. H.J. Bhabha Ministry of Mines and Ports

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Ministry of Food and Agriculture

Asaf Ali Railway Ministry

Jagjivan Ram Labor and Welfare

Members who joined later from Muslim League

Liaquat Ali Khan Finance Ministry

I I Chandigarh Commerce

Abdul Khan Nastar Communication

gazaffar ali health

Jogendra Nath method

Constituent Assembly

Making of the Constitution: The representative body formed by the citizens to prepare the framework of the Constitution of a country is called the Constituent Assembly. The principled formulation of the Constituent Assembly was first made by England's egalitarians and Henry Vane.

According to the Cabinet Mission Plan for the framing of the Indian Constitution, the Constituent Assembly was to be formed by 389 elected representatives, out of which one member for every 10 lakh population was to be elected by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assembly.The election work for 296 seats allotted for Indian provinces was completed in July-August 1946, in which Congress won 208 seats, Muslim League won 73 seats, independents won 8 seats and small parties won 7 seats.

The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 389, of which 296 were from British India and 93 from the princely states.

Of the 296 members from the provinces, the allocation of seats was as follows: General 213, Muslims 79 and Sikhs 4.

The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9 December 1946 in the Central Hall of the Parliament House in New Delhi, which was boycotted by the Muslim League.

According to the plan of 3 June 1947, a separate Constituent Assembly was formed for Pakistan in which the membership of the Constituent Assembly was reduced and in it 235 representatives of the provinces and 73 representatives of the native princely states were left, hence now only 308 members were left in the Constituent Assembly.

On 26 November 1949, 284 members were present who signed the finally adopted constitution.

Constitutional committees

Drafting Committee Chairman Bhimrao Ambedkar Number of Members 7

Draft Review Committee Chairman Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer Number of Members 9

Rough Draft Committee Chairman Benegal Narasimha Rao Number of Members 4

Union Constitution Committee Chairman Jawaharlal Nehru Number of members 15

Provincial Constitution Committee Chairman Ballabh Bhai Patel Number of members 25

Work Steering Committee Chairman KM Munshi Number of members 3

Fundamental Rights and Minority Committee Chairman Ballabh Bhai Patel Number of members 54

Sangh Shakti Committee Chairman Jawaharlal Nehru Number of members 9

Flag Committee Chairman JB Kripalani

important facts

The first meeting was presided over by the first and last temporary president, Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad was permanently elected President of the Constituent Assembly on 11 December 1946.

The objective proposal was presented before the Constituent Assembly by Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 December 1946.

The objective resolution was passed in the Constituent Assembly on 22 January 1947 AD

On 29 August 1947, a drafting committee was formed under the leadership of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar.

Whose president was Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar and its members were Sir Gopal Swami Iyengar, Mohammad Sadullah Kanhaiya Lal Manik Lal Munshi, AK Iyer, BL Mittal, DP Khaitan.

The draft of the Indian Constitution was prepared under the chairmanship of Bhimrao Ambedkar, hence he was called the father of the Indian Constitution.

Benegal Narasimha Rao appointed as constitutional advisor to the Indian Constituent Assembly

The number of Scheduled Tribe members in the Constituent Assembly was 23 and the number of women members was 9.

The draft of the Constitution was discussed for 114 days

The draft of the Constitution was published in February 1948. On 26 November 1949, the President signed the draft of the Constitution and the Citizenship Election and Interim Parliament came into force with immediate effect.

The rest of the Constitution came into force on 26 January 1950. Republic Day is celebrated in India on this day. Jawahar Lal Nehru proposed the name of Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the candidate for the first President of the Republic of India and was supported by Sardar Patel.

The last meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 24 January 1950. It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to create the Constitution.

Approximately ₹64 was spent on the making of the Indian Constitution.

HBI Iyengar was the Secretary of the Constituent Assembly and was also the Electoral Officer of the President.

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