Its effects is crucial for the GS 3 syllabus, specifically the topic of Climate Change and Environmental Ecology. Reading this article will help you gain insights into the current scenario and enhance your understanding of the subject.
The year 2023 is on track to possibly become the warmest year in recorded history, with temperatures nearing 1.4°C above the pre-industrial era average.
In September 2023, global temperatures reached a record high, with the average surface air temperature being 0.93°C higher than the September average between 1991 and 2020.
September 2023 was approximately 1.75°C above the average temperature of September during the 1850-1900 span, which is considered the pre-industrial benchmark.
From January to September 2023, the global surface air temperature was 0.52°C above the 1991-2020 average and 0.05°C higher than the same period in 2016, the warmest year.
In September 2023, a region stretching from France to Finland and extending to north-western Russia reported its hottest September ever, with Belgium and the U.K. facing unprecedented heatwave conditions.
The global surface air temperatures for the 30 warmest months between 1940 and 2023 are shown in Chart 2.
The months of July and August 2023 recorded the warmest-ever temperatures, with global mean temperatures reaching monthly records of 16.95°C and 16.82°C respectively.
September 2023 is the hottest September on record, with an average surface air temperature higher than any previous September.
Chart 3 shows the global daily surface air temperature from 1940 to September 2023, with the line for 2023 highlighted.
In 2023, the global temperature exceeded the 1.5°C threshold above pre-industrial levels for more than 80 days, the highest number of such days on record.
The extent of sea ice in the Antarctic region is at very low levels for this time of the year, with both daily and monthly extents dropping to their lowest annual peaks.
Satellite records for September 2023 show that the monthly extent of sea ice in the Antarctic region is 9% below the norm.
Chart 4 displays the daily Antarctic sea ice extent from 1979 to September 2023, with 2023 highlighted. The median for 1991-2020 is shown as a dotted line.
The monthly average Arctic sea ice extent in September 2023 reached its annual minimum of 4.8 million km2.
This is about 1.1 million km2 (or 18%) below the 1991-2020 average for September.
The September 2023 value is the fifth lowest in the satellite data record.