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It is important to understand the environmental impact of firecrackers and the regulations......

It is important to understand the environmental impact of firecrackers and the regulations surrounding their use. This article discusses the harmful effects of firecrackers on noise pollution and public health.

  • Firecrackers are associated with joyous celebrations but can be toxic, loud, and release noxious fumes.

  • In 2018, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research launched 'green' crackers to reduce toxicity and noise.

  • The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules 2000 prohibit bursting firecrackers in 'silence zones' and after 10 p.m.


Firecracker noise should not exceed 75 dB(A) Leq during daytime, 65 dB(A) Leq in commercial areas, and 55 dB(A) Leq in residential areas.

  • Complaints can be registered if the noise exceeds 10 dB(A) Leq during daytime.

  • An increase of 10 dB implies a tenfold increase in acoustic pressure, which can be harmful.

  • Loud environments have been linked to sleep disorders, tinnitus, stress, anxiety, hearing loss, and cardiac health issues.

  • More than 80 dB(A) in offices has been associated with hypertension.

  • Above 50 dB(A) at night could increase cortisol levels.

  • Traffic noise has increased in cities due to haphazard development and overuse of horns.

  • Noisy celebrations during religious occasions are common, regardless of the hour.

  • Bursting firecrackers during Deepavali can produce more than 90 dB of sound.

  • The rules and sanctions for noise offenders are unclear.

  • Governments should prevent the production of violative firecrackers and improve public access to noise data.

  • Cities should adopt noise mitigation targets to address the public health crisis of noise pollution.

The issue of last minute defections of leaders from one political party to another in Indian elections. It highlights how electoral politics has become more about building a career through patronage rather than ideological conviction.

  • Last minute defection of leaders from one party to another is a common occurrence in the upcoming elections in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, and Telangana.

  • Elections in India have become expensive, leading parties to choose candidates based on their ability to mobilize resources for campaigns rather than their work or popularity.

  • Many politicians are in politics to build a career through patronage rather than ideological conviction, leading to a high degree of party-hopping.

  • Incumbents may switch parties if not given another chance by their current party, and rebels also engage in party-hopping.

  • The politics of patronage is seen as less representative of constituency interests and more as a transaction between the candidate and the voter.

  • This system of patronage can be seen as a result of the larger democratisation of the polity, as representatives cater to specific demands of voters, bypassing the party structure.

  • The Congress party has lost out to the BJP due to large-scale defections to the BJP.

  • The BJP has managed to articulate a clear ideological stance of right-wing conservatism.

  • The Congress party is trying to rejuvenate itself by distinguishing itself from the BJP.

  • The Congress party is positioning itself as a vehicle of welfare through electoral guarantees.

  • The Congress party has allowed last-minute defectors from the BJP and regional parties in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Telangana.

  • Retaining these malleable legislators poses a challenge for the Congress party.

  • Defections will continue to be a feature of Indian politics unless voters punish the defectors for repeated party-hopping.

The deepening tension between India and Canada and its impact on Indian students who wish to study in Canada. It highlights the increasing number of Indian students in Canada and the economic contributions they make to the country.

  • The tension between India and Canada is affecting the prospects of Indian students studying in Canada.



  • Canada is home to about 1.3 million Indians, accounting for 4% of the country's population.

  • The number of Indian students in Canada has sharply risen in recent years, reaching nearly 320,000 by December 2022.

  • In September, India updated its advisory urging its citizens to exercise caution when traveling to Canada.

  • Indian students who have just secured admissions to Canadian higher educational institutions may be particularly affected.

  • Canadian colleges and universities have reassured students that they are still safe and welcomed.

  • Indian students prefer destinations that offer fee waivers, scholarships, and stipends.

  • International students contributed over 22.3 billion CAD to the Canadian economy in 2020.

  • Many international students in Canada intend to stay in the country after completing their studies.

  • The pathway to Canadian citizenship is cheaper and faster compared to other Western countries.

  • Entry via a study visa has become a popular route for those wishing to relocate to Canada.

  • A recent report shows that only 30% of international students in Canada have been able to obtain permanent residence within a decade of their arrival.

  • Studying in Canada enhances career and income prospects but does not guarantee a seamless transition to becoming an immigrant.

  • International students, including Indian students, are finding it increasingly difficult to get jobs in Canada.

  • There are long queues of Indian students looking for part-time jobs, indicating a moderate to severe job crisis for Indian students.

  • Prospective students are already looking for alternatives to Canada due to the job crisis.

  • The continuous influx of emigrants and international students is putting pressure on the housing sector in Canada, leading to skyrocketing rental prices.

  • The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation believes that 5.8 million new homes need to be built by 2030 to restore affordability.

  • Housing shortages have occasionally led to demands for restricting university admissions to ease housing rentals.

  • Despite these challenges, the charm of Canada for international students is still strong.

  • First-hand knowledge and experiences of friends and relatives who studied in Canada often hold more weight than data and statistics.

  • Indian students, in particular, are passionate about studying in Canada but are now facing uncertainty in pursuing their dreams.


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