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It is important to read this article because it discusses India's approach to handling the......

It is important to read this article because it discusses India's approach to handling the Pakistan issue and draws parallels with Israel's approach to the Palestinian conflict.

  • Israel's prevailing security policy has collapsed after the horrors of October 7, 2023, prompting retaliation in Gaza and suffering for innocent civilians.

  • Israel's previous strategy involved launching limited air campaigns into Gaza every couple of years to degrade the military capabilities of Hamas and other militants.

  • However, this approach was only managing the problem of Palestinian resistance and did not seek to solve it.

  • Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu abandoned the two-state solution and undermined it, strengthening extremists like Hamas and weakening the Palestinian Authority.

  • Netanyahu's goal was to keep the Palestinians divided and stall the political process for addressing the Israel-Palestine dispute.

  • Israel's strategic concept of periodic attrition only focused on Palestinian groups' capabilities, not their political intent.

  • Israel believed that its operational superiority alone can deliver strategic effects.

  • Hamas showed on October 7 that a weaker enemy can still inflict physical harm and national dislocation.

  • Relying on operational superiority without addressing the political roots of the problem invites the adversary to continue using violence.

  • India has treated Pakistan as an irritant to an unstoppably rising India for almost a decade.

  • India has made commendable efforts in defense matters, including resuscitating the Line of Control ceasefire and re-tasking a dedicated Pakistan-facing Strike Corps to the China border.

  • More could be done to focus the military's attention and resources on Pakistan.

  • India has been focused on the concept of operational superiority, believing that a more powerful actor can manage threats through periodic attrition.

  • India has acquired new technologies and adopted punitive attack options, potentially with the help of its closer relationship with Israel.

  • However, these capabilities only enable successful tactics, not effective strategy.

  • India has rejected the idea of addressing the threat politically, signaling that the Kashmir dispute is non-negotiable and refusing to reopen talks with Pakistan.

  • Ignoring the political interests in the rivalry with Pakistan may invite the adversary to dig in and try harder.

  • A political process may have dividends and should not be ignored.

  • Dialogue with Pakistan may not change the anti-India ideology of the Pakistan Army and its terrorist allies, but it could help in calming tensions and distancing themselves from extremist groups.

  • Pakistan's Army and political elite have incentives in promoting economic stability, countering terrorism, and reducing dependence on China.

  • Starting a political process could address various issues such as nuclear and missile confidence-building measures, coordination on Afghanistan, and increasing trade and investment.

  • Ignoring politics can have costly consequences, as seen in the recent conflicts between Israel and its Arab enemies.

  • Pakistan is currently facing internal turmoil and violent extremism, and it possesses nuclear weapons.

  • New Delhi should maintain deterrence through military means, but solely relying on military strategies may not be effective in the long run.

The power-sharing tussle between the Chief Minister and Deputy Chief Minister of Karnataka, which is an example of the challenges faced in the devolution of powers and finances in the federal structure of India.

  • There is a power struggle between Karnataka Chief Minister Siddaramaiah and his deputy D.K. Shivakumar.

  • Some MLAs claim that Shivakumar will become Chief Minister after two and a half years.

  • Siddaramaiah has stated that he will complete a full term as Chief Minister.

  • Siddaramaiah has a mass following and appeals to minorities, backward classes, and Dalits.

Shivakumar is known for his organizational skills and has support from the Vokkaliga community.

  • The Congress high command, including Sonia Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi, has urged them to work together.

  • There have been tensions due to their different political backgrounds, leadership styles, ambitions, and ideologies.

  • Supporters of Siddaramaiah and Shivakumar have openly expressed their differences.

  • Some ministers feel resentment over the omission of senior party leader B.K. Hariprasad from the Cabinet and the alleged sidelining of certain ministers in decision-making.

  • Ministers Satish Jarkiholi and G. Parameshwara also have ambitions to become Chief Minister.


  • Cooperation Minister K.N. Rajanna proposed appointing three more Deputy Chief Ministers for "balancing castes" ahead of the 2024 Lok Sabha elections.

  • The proposal is seen as a move by the Siddaramaiah camp to counter Mr. Shivakumar's decision-making power related to Bengaluru.

  • Mr. Shivakumar's proposal to rename Ramanagara district as Bengaluru South without consultation has caused disagreement with the Chief Minister.

  • The proposal aimed at developing real estate has faced criticism, particularly from Janata Dal (S) leader H.D. Kumaraswamy.

  • The delays in appointing party workers and legislators to government boards/corporations, along with out-of-turn remarks by ministers and MLAs, and corruption allegations by the BJP, are not favorable for the Congress ahead of the general elections.

  • AICC general secretaries Randeep Singh Surjewala and K.C. Venugopal met with Mr. Siddaramaiah and Mr. Shivakumar to pacify them and warned party members against making public statements on internal party matters and the government.

  • The BJP has a history of engineered defections in Karnataka, known as 'Operation Lotus'.

  • There are claims of a conspiracy to topple the government by Congress leaders.

  • Siddaramaiah, a Congress leader, held a breakfast meeting with cabinet colleagues, including Shivakumar, to show unity and instructed them to work hard for victory in the 2024 general elections.

  • The game of one-upmanship between top leaders is ongoing and may intensify again in the future.

The rigours of student life in Kota, particularly the amount of time students spend in coaching centres and the challenges they face. It provides insights into the lifestyle changes, pressure, and discrimination that students experience while preparing for entrance exams.

  • 85% of students studying in Kota spend six to seven hours in coaching centres every day

  • Students preparing for JEE and NEET spend more time in coaching centres compared to students preparing for other exams

  • Coaching centres in Kota hold weekly tests to track students' performance

  • 54% of students find these weekly tests helpful, while 10% find them stressful

  • More than 80% of students feel that coaching centres should set one day every week for leisure activities to provide respite from the hectic schedule.

  • One-third of students in Kota have been there for about a year, while one-fourth have been there for two years.



Over one-third of students feel homesick often, while close to half feel homesick from time to time.

  • 19% of students do not have friends in Kota to share their feelings with when they feel low or demotivated.

  • Majority of students have


managed to find close friends after shifting to Kota.

  • Only two out of every 10 students share accommodation with friends, while an even lower number stay with parents or siblings.

  • Close to two-thirds of students live alone in order to have an environment with fewer distractions for studying.

  • Among students who have already attempted the exam once, 67% live alone, and this figure increases to 71% for students who have mad


e two attempts.

  • In comparison, 63% of students who are yet to sit for the exam live alone.

  • 21% of students face discrimination due to their caste, 26% due to their economic situation, and 17% due to their religious identity

  • 47% of students face discrimination over their academic performance

  • Majority of students (68%) talk to their families to divert attention from daily pressure

  • Less than half (46%) watch movies or listen to music every day

  • Only 26% turn to meditation or physical exercise

  • Fewer students have time for reading that is not related to their syllabus

  • 50% of students have started going to bed later since moving to Kota

  • 32% have started waking up earlier

  • 59% of students now dedicate more time for self-

study

  • 47% of students have started eating less after shifting to Kota

  • Life at Kota is stressful and marked by considerable loneliness.

  • The article is written by Abhinav Borbora, Sanjay Kumar, Suhas Palshikar, and Jyoti Mishra, who are researchers and professors in the field of political science.

  • The authors are affiliated with CSDS (Centre for the Study of Developing Societies) and Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune.

  • The chief editor of 'Studies in Indian Politics' is Suhas Palshikar.

  • The article provides valuable insights and analysis on political science and Indian politics.

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