The original Constitution had 22 parts, 395 articles, and 8 schedules.
At present the Indian Constitution has 25 parts, 465 articles (including sub-articles) and 12 schedules. The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world.
The 12 schedules of the Indian Constitution are as follows
Schedule 1 – It includes Union and State Territories
Schedule 2 – In which schedule are the details of salaries and allowances of the President, Vice President, Lok Sabha Speaker and Deputy Speaker, Attorney General, Comptroller and Auditor General, Supreme Court Judges and Governors of various states provided
Schedule 3 – Provisions for oath and affirmation of the President, Vice President, Chief Justice (Supreme Court), Attorney General, Comptroller and Auditor General and Governors of States are given in this list.
Schedule 4 – This list contains provisions related to the allocation of seats for the states and union territories (where there is an assembly).
Schedule 5 – This list contains provisions related to the administration of Scheduled Castes/Tribes.
Schedule 6 – This schedule contains provisions related to the administration of the Scheduled Tribe areas of Tripura, Meghalaya, Assam and Mizoram.
Schedule 7 – Provisions related to Centre-State relations are given in this
Schedule 8 – In this, details of the languages recognized by the Constitution and the provisions related to them are given.
Schedule 9 – This schedule was created in 1951. It includes those subjects which are not litigable in the court.
Schedule 10 – This schedule was included in the Indian Constitution by the 52nd Constitutional Amendment in 1985 AD. It includes provisions related to defection.
Schedule 11 – Under this schedule, '73rd Constitutional Amendment Act 1993' was added by passing which details related to Panchayati Raj are given.
Schedule 12 - This schedule was included in the Indian Constitution by passing the '74th Constitution Amendment Act' in 1993 AD. Under this, details related to urban local self-government are given.
Amendment Process The Indian Constitution has been called a living document. With the aim of molding the Constitution according to the changing needs of the society, three types of amendments have been suggested in it.
Amendment Process 1 – Under this, the amendment is made after the President signs the proposal passed by the simple majority of the members present and voting in both the houses of the Parliament.
Amendment Process 2 – According to this process, the amendment proposal should be passed by 2/3 majority of the members present and voting in both the houses of the Parliament.
Amendment Process 3 – In this, it is necessary to get the support of at least 50% of the legislatures of the total provinces along with 2/3 majority in both the houses of the Parliament.
Socialist Secular State – The Indian Constitution has been declared a socialist and secular state by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act.
Political equality has been provided to its citizens by universal adult suffrage.
Federal Features – There are two levels in federal government, the Union Government and the Government of the States. This form exists in India.
Parliamentary System: Parliamentary system of governance has been adopted in India. Under this, Parliament, the body representing the public, is all-powerful.
The concept of welfare state has been presented in the Indian Constitution. This concept matches with Abraham Lincoln's theory regarding democracy. He had said that democracy is the rule of the people by the people for the people.
The objective of the Directive Principles of Politics as stated in the Indian Constitution is to make India a welfare state.
We the people of India, in order to make India a sovereign socialist, secular, democratic republic, guarantee to all its citizens social, economic and political justice, freedom of thought, expression, belief, religion and worship; equality of opportunity for prestige, for achieving and in all “Determining to promote fraternity that ensures the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation, we in this Constituent Assembly do this day, the 26th day of November, 1949, adopt, enact and dedicate ourselves to this Constitution.”
Sovereign means the Government of India is omnipotent within the Indian borders.
Secularism means that the state will not encourage or discourage any religion.
Democratic means rule by representatives of the people
Words like socialist, secular and integrity were added under the 42nd constitutional amendment after the case of Kesavananda Bhartiya vs State of Kerala.
Sources of Indian Constitution
In the making of the Indian Constitution, the constitutions of 60 countries were studied, but some special facts were adopted from the constitutions of only 10 countries. Apart from this, the Government of India Act 1935 is also very important among the main sources of the Indian Constitution.
US Constitution – Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Supreme Court, Judicial Review, powers and functions of the President, position of the Vice President and amendment system.
Australian Constitution – Language of the Preamble, Concurrent List and Centre-State relations.
British Constitution- Parliamentary system of governance, law making process and single citizenship
Constitution of South Africa – amendment system
Constitution of Canada – Federal system, Residuary powers under the central government, Office of the Governor
Weimar, Germany – emergency powers of the President
Japanese Constitution – procedure and terminology established by law
Russian – Constitution – Fundamental Duties
French Constitution – Republic
Constitution of Ireland – Directive Principles of State Policy, Electoral College of the President, Nomination of 12 members to the Rajya Sabha
Government of India Act 1935 – About 200 articles of this Act are directly or indirectly similar to various articles of the Indian Constitution.
India is a constitutional republic. The Preamble of the Constitution of India is called the soul of the Constitution. Federal government system is applicable in India but the word federation has not been used anywhere in the Constitution. India has been called a 'Union of States' in the Constitution.
Ken. According to C. Hair – “India is mainly a unitary state, in which federal features are minimal. The Constitution of India is more unitary than federal. ,
Pro. According to Payali- “India's structure is federal but. His soul is united. ,
Pro. According to D. D. Basu- “The Constitution of India is neither purely federal nor purely unitary; It is a combination of both . ,
Characteristics of federal system in the Indian Constitution
Supremacy of the Constitution.
Separate governments in the central state.
Division of powers between center and state.
Independent and supreme court.
Characteristics of unitary system in Indian Constitution
Integrated justice system.
Distribution of powers in favor of the centre.
One constitution for the Union and the State.
The Central Government has the right to change the boundaries of the states.
Appointment of governors in the states.
The Center has the right to make laws on the subjects of the State List.
Constitution amendment easily.
Unitary form in times of crisis.
The right of Governors to reserve for the approval of the President the laws passed by the State Legislatures.